Information About Parathyroid Disorders
What Are Parathyroid Glands?
The parathyroids are tiny endocrine glands located adjacent to the thyroid in the neck. Everyone has four of them (very rarely 5), and they all do one thing: regulate calcium levels in the blood. They do this by producing parathyroid hormone (PTH). When the calcium in the blood is low, the parathyroid glands make more PTH in order to bring the calcium back up. When the blood calcium is too high, the parathyroid glands stop making PTH, which will lead to a drop in blood calcium.
Most of the body’s calcium is stored in the bones, but calcium is more than just a component of bones. The brain, nerves, and muscles depend on calcium for signaling. The blood needs proper calcium levels to clot effectively. The parathyroid glands ensure that calcium levels remain within a very narrow range for these organs to function optimally.
Parathyroid disorders are characterized by abnormal functioning of the parathyroid glands. The most common disorder of the parathyroid glands is called primary hyperparathyroidism, which is overactivity of one or more of the parathyroid glands. This is usually caused by a benign parathyroid tumor, or adenoma, that produces too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH works in several ways to increase the calcium in the bloodstream, called hypercalcemia. This can be seen on routine blood tests, and this is often how patients find out that they have parathyroid disease.
Although parathyroid tumors are almost always benign (non-cancerous), they are not harmless. Untreated parathyroid disease can lead to chronic fatigue, insomnia, memory loss, kidney stones, cardiac arrhythmias (like atrial fibrillation), chronic kidney disease, and osteoporosis. The disease significantly impairs quality of life. Fortunately, primary hyperparathyroidism can be cured with a quick outpatient procedure that is safe and effective.
World-Class Treatment for Parathyroid Disorders at the TGH Parathyroid & Thyroid Institute
Our center’s parathyroid surgeons are the two of only a handful of surgeons in the world who operate solely on the parathyroid glands. They have some of the highest cure rates, with minimal complications, and operative times that are a fraction of the time that it takes other surgeons to do this procedure. Patients in the center are cared for on a dedicated floor at Tampa General by a team of nurses, physicians, technicians, and others who are committed to providing the highest quality experience for patients with parathyroid disease. Most patients can leave the hospital within two hours after the procedure. Our system is innovative and highly efficient, but also personalized and patient-focused.
As a patient at the TGH Parathyroid & Thyroid Institute, you will be evaluated by two of the world’s most experienced specialists in parathyroid disease. Because our physicians focus exclusively on the surgical treatment of parathyroid disorders, we have in-depth knowledge about all aspects of diagnosing and treating these conditions. Named as one of the top 20 in the nation and the highest-ranked hospital in Florida for Ear, Nose and Throat by U.S. News & World Report for 2022-23, TGH is a destination for parathyroid patients from around the world.
What is Unique About Parathyroid Surgery at Tampa General?
- Our two surgeons (Dr. Politz and Dr. Lopez) have performed more parathyroid operations than any other pair of surgeons in the world over the last ten years, and our surgeons work as a team on every case. Each patient has our two experts evaluate all four parathyroid glands. With the extreme variability of parathyroid anatomy and appearance, this is of paramount importance and ensures the best outcomes for our patients.
- All four parathyroid glands are assessed to make sure no tumor is left behind (up to 30% of patients will have more than one parathyroid tumor, and these generally are not seen on any scans). Many surgeons will only evaluate one parathyroid gland, as finding and evaluating all four glands quickly and safely can be very challenging. Our surgeons have the extensive experience necessary to be able to find and evaluate all four glands on almost all patients despite negative radiographic or nuclear medicine scans.
- The physiologic activity of each parathyroid gland is assessed in real-time to assure hyperfunctioning glands are removed and normal glands are left behind in a healthy state.
- Our center avoids unnecessary and expensive tests that add little to the diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid disease. This includes many of the localization studies that attempt to find the parathyroid tumor preoperatively, including CT scans. Our patients do not need any imaging studies prior to the day of surgery. On the day of surgery, each patient gets a sestamibi scan to ensure that the tumor is not in an unusual location and a thyroid ultrasound to evaluate the thyroid for any suspicious nodules that might change the course of the procedure. These studies may not show the adenoma, but because our surgeons are experienced in finding all four parathyroid glands, it is not necessary to perform any further imaging before the operation.
- Everyone at the center, from the OR technicians who work with the surgeons to the transporters who take patients to the scanner, is dedicated solely to caring for parathyroid patients. They are all part of one team.